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推动全球治理体制更加公正合理

2021年02月08日 10:44:01
来源: 《红旗文稿》2021/3 作者: 罗来军

  当今的(de)(de)全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)系正处于大(da)调整(zheng)、大(da)变(bian)革(ge)(ge)(ge)、大(da)转换时(shi)期。新兴经(jing)济体(ti)(ti)成为(wei)(wei)重大(da)的(de)(de)新兴力(li)(li)量,全球(qiu)性新问题新挑(tiao)(tiao)战层出不(bu)穷,既(ji)有(you)全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)系出现乏力(li)(li)与退却。随着(zhe)全球(qiu)性挑(tiao)(tiao)战日(ri)益增多,加强全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)、推进全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)制变(bian)革(ge)(ge)(ge)已是大(da)势(shi)所趋。中(zhong)国(guo)作为(wei)(wei)负(fu)责任的(de)(de)大(da)国(guo),有(you)意愿、有(you)能力(li)(li)、有(you)条(tiao)件为(wei)(wei)全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)制变(bian)革(ge)(ge)(ge)提出中(zhong)国(guo)方案,贡献中(zhong)国(guo)智(zhi)慧。2021年(nian)1月25日(ri),在(zai)世(shi)界(jie)经(jing)济论(lun)坛(tan)“达(da)沃(wo)斯议程”对(dui)话会上的(de)(de)特(te)别(bie)致辞(ci)中(zhong),习近平总书记指明了世(shi)界(jie)的(de)(de)出路在(zai)于维护和(he)践行(xing)多边主义,推动构建人类(lei)命运共(gong)同体(ti)(ti)。我们(men)要深刻领会、积极贯彻习近平总书记的(de)(de)重要思想和(he)要求,努力(li)(li)推动全球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)制向着(zhe)更加公正合理(li)方向发(fa)(fa)展(zhan),为(wei)(wei)我国(guo)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)和(he)世(shi)界(jie)和(he)平创(chuang)造更加有(you)利(li)的(de)(de)条(tiao)件。

  建立多元、对等、包容、共赢的全球治理机制

  坚定维护和践行多边主义(yi)(yi),建立多元(yuan)、对(dui)等、包(bao)(bao)容、共赢(ying)的(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)机(ji)制,才(cai)能更好地(di)适应(ying)新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴经济体(ti)成为(wei)世(shi)界舞台上(shang)重大新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴力量这一国(guo)际格局的(de)根(gen)本性变化。习近平总书(shu)记说:“多边主义(yi)(yi)的(de)要(yao)义(yi)(yi)是国(guo)际上(shang)的(de)事由大家共同商量着(zhe)办,世(shi)界前(qian)途(tu)命运由各国(guo)共同掌(zhang)握。”过去的(de)一国(guo)独大、少数强国(guo)称霸(ba)的(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)事务治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)与协调机(ji)制,已经不能适应(ying)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)格局;坚持(chi)开放包(bao)(bao)容,不搞(gao)封闭排他,才(cai)是世(shi)界发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)真(zhen)正前(qian)途(tu)。随着(zhe)新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴经济体(ti)和发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中国(guo)家的(de)崛(jue)起,全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)越(yue)来越(yue)需(xu)要(yao)更加(jia)多元(yuan)、更加(jia)对(dui)等,也需(xu)要(yao)更加(jia)包(bao)(bao)容、更加(jia)懂得分享。一直发(fa)(fa)挥(hui)作用的(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)体(ti)系之所(suo)以遭(zao)遇困境和挑战,根(gen)本原因在于没(mei)有(you)适应(ying)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)新(xin)(xin)(xin)格局的(de)要(yao)求,没(mei)有(you)及时建立多元(yuan)、对(dui)等、包(bao)(bao)容、共赢(ying)的(de)多边主义(yi)(yi)的(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理(li)(li)机(ji)制。

  中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)敏锐观察到历史发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)趋势和全球(qiu)(qiu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)格(ge)局,积(ji)极(ji)致力(li)于全球(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)新(xin)(xin)(xin)机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)构(gou)(gou)建与(yu)运行(xing)。推进全球(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)制(zhi)(zhi)变革(ge)并不是(shi)推倒重(zhong)来,也(ye)不是(shi)另起炉灶,而是(shi)创新(xin)(xin)(xin)完善,使全球(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)制(zhi)(zhi)更(geng)(geng)(geng)好地(di)反映国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)格(ge)局的(de)(de)(de)变化,更(geng)(geng)(geng)加平衡地(di)反映大多数国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)特别(bie)是(shi)新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴(xing)市(shi)场国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)和发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)意(yi)愿和利益。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)作为(wei)全球(qiu)(qiu)最大的(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴(xing)经济体(ti)(ti)和发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia),与(yu)其它发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)一道在(zai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)社会中(zhong)致力(li)于提(ti)升(sheng)话(hua)语(yu)权(quan)和影(ying)响力(li),一起推动全球(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)体(ti)(ti)系朝着更(geng)(geng)(geng)加多元、对(dui)等的(de)(de)(de)方向(xiang)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)积(ji)极(ji)推动新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴(xing)经济体(ti)(ti)在(zai)IMF、世界银行(xing)、联合(he)(he)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)等国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)机(ji)构(gou)(gou)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)投票(piao)权(quan)、管(guan)理(li)权(quan)等改革(ge),提(ti)升(sheng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)代表性、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)言权(quan)、决策力(li)。积(ji)极(ji)参与(yu)成立金(jin)(jin)砖(zhuan)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)合(he)(he)作机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),主导设立金(jin)(jin)砖(zhuan)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)新(xin)(xin)(xin)开发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)银行(xing),并提(ti)出“金(jin)(jin)砖(zhuan)+”模式,该模式已成为(wei)新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴(xing)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)和发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)合(he)(he)作机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)还与(yu)其它金(jin)(jin)砖(zhuan)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)一起代表新(xin)(xin)(xin)兴(xing)经济体(ti)(ti)和发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia),在(zai)G20中(zhong)与(yu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)达国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)开展(zhan)对(dui)等的(de)(de)(de)合(he)(he)作与(yu)对(dui)话(hua),促使国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)事务的(de)(de)(de)协商与(yu)决策对(dui)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)更(geng)(geng)(geng)加包容,促进发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)达国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)与(yu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)之(zhi)间实现更(geng)(geng)(geng)高程(cheng)度的(de)(de)(de)共赢。

  推(tui)动全(quan)球(qiu)治(zhi)理(li)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)更加多元、对(dui)等(deng)、包(bao)容、共赢也(ye)面(mian)临着艰难(nan)挑(tiao)战。一(yi)方面(mian),新兴经(jing)(jing)济(ji)体(ti)(ti)中(zhong)(zhong)部分(fen)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)的综合(he)实(shi)力和(he)(he)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)势(shi)头出现了(le)衰退,发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)之间(jian)的发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)不平衡也(ye)相当严(yan)重,削弱了(le)新兴经(jing)(jing)济(ji)体(ti)(ti)和(he)(he)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)在国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)舞台上(shang)的整体(ti)(ti)实(shi)力和(he)(he)影(ying)响力。另一(yi)方面(mian),发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)自身的合(he)作(zuo)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi),以及与(yu)其它重要(yao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)组织和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)的衔接(jie)与(yu)合(he)作(zuo),均需要(yao)进一(yi)步(bu)构(gou)建(jian)(jian)、梳理(li)与(yu)加强(qiang)。中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)勇于担当和(he)(he)履行全(quan)球(qiu)最大新兴经(jing)(jing)济(ji)体(ti)(ti)和(he)(he)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)应有的国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)责任,与(yu)其它发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)一(yi)道并(bing)积(ji)极发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)挥引领作(zuo)用,对(dui)南(nan)南(nan)合(he)作(zuo)、南(nan)北合(he)作(zuo),联合(he)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)及安理(li)会、WTO、IMF等(deng)重要(yao)全(quan)球(qiu)多边(bian)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)的进一(yi)步(bu)改(gai)革,创建(jian)(jian)安全(quan)、经(jing)(jing)济(ji)、金融(rong)、贸易、治(zhi)理(li)等(deng)全(quan)球(qiu)多边(bian)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi),创建(jian)(jian)服务于新兴市(shi)场的全(quan)球(qiu)多边(bian)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi),一(yi)方面(mian)持续提(ti)升了(le)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)的地位和(he)(he)分(fen)量,另一(yi)方面(mian)增进了(le)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)达国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)对(dui)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)(jia)的包(bao)容与(yu)合(he)作(zuo)。

  营造共生、共治、共享的世界合作格局

  营造共生(sheng)、共治(zhi)、共享的(de)世界合(he)作(zuo)(zuo)格局(ju),是(shi)(shi)为(wei)了(le)规避以(yi)邻为(wei)壑做法(fa)的(de)重新抬头,建设(she)利益互(hu)联(lian)、共同行动(dong)(dong)的(de)全(quan)球合(he)作(zuo)(zuo)与发(fa)展机制(zhi)。世上(shang)没有(you)绝对(dui)安全(quan)的(de)世外桃源(yuan),一(yi)国的(de)安全(quan)不(bu)能建立在别国的(de)动(dong)(dong)荡之上(shang),他国的(de)威(wei)胁也可(ke)能成为(wei)本(ben)国的(de)挑战。冷战思维、零和博弈是(shi)(shi)要摒(bing)弃的(de)旧理念(nian),坚持协商合(he)作(zuo)(zuo)、不(bu)搞冲突对(dui)抗(kang)才(cai)是(shi)(shi)世界各国要奉行的(de)新理念(nian)。

  习近平总(zong)书记讲到(dao):“全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理体(ti)(ti)制(zhi)变(bian)革离不开理念的(de)(de)(de)(de)引领,全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理规则(ze)体(ti)(ti)现更加公正(zheng)合(he)理的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求离不开对(dui)(dui)人类(lei)各(ge)(ge)种优秀文明成果的(de)(de)(de)(de)吸收。要(yao)(yao)推(tui)动全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理理念创(chuang)新发(fa)展,积极发(fa)掘中华文化(hua)(hua)中积极的(de)(de)(de)(de)处世(shi)之(zhi)道和(he)(he)治(zhi)理理念同(tong)(tong)当今时代的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣点(dian),继续丰富打造人类(lei)命运(yun)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)体(ti)(ti)等(deng)主(zhu)张,弘扬(yang)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)商共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)建(jian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理理念。”一个分(fen)裂的(de)(de)(de)(de)世(shi)界(jie)(jie)无(wu)法应(ying)对(dui)(dui)人类(lei)面临的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)挑战(zhan),对(dui)(dui)抗(kang)将把(ba)人类(lei)引入(ru)死(si)胡同(tong)(tong)。经(jing)济全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)化(hua)(hua)深(shen)入(ru)发(fa)展,把(ba)世(shi)界(jie)(jie)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)利(li)(li)益(yi)和(he)(he)命运(yun)更加紧密地(di)联(lian)系在一起,很多(duo)问(wen)题(ti)不再局限于一国(guo)内(nei)部(bu),很多(duo)挑战(zhan)也(ye)不再是(shi)(shi)一国(guo)之(zhi)力所能(neng)(neng)应(ying)对(dui)(dui)。世(shi)界(jie)(jie)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)事情(qing)越来越需要(yao)(yao)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)商量着(zhe)办(ban),不可(ke)能(neng)(neng)由哪一个国(guo)家独自掌握。全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理体(ti)(ti)系是(shi)(shi)由全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)建(jian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de),全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)治(zhi)理结构如何完善(shan)应(ying)该由各(ge)(ge)国(guo)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)来决定。从过(guo)去到(dao)现在,世(shi)界(jie)(jie)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)合(he)作中以邻为(wei)(wei)壑(he)的(de)(de)(de)(de)做法始终(zhong)存(cun)在着(zhe),不仅伤害他(ta)国(guo)利(li)(li)益(yi),长远(yuan)来看也(ye)必然会伤害自身利(li)(li)益(yi)。多(duo)年来,中国(guo)在各(ge)(ge)国(guo)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)合(he)作以及(ji)全(quan)(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)事务的(de)(de)(de)(de)协调(diao)上,坚定地(di)倡导共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)商、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)建(jian)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)赢、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)等(deng)做法,目的(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)为(wei)(wei)了(le)营造和(he)(he)推(tui)动共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)生(sheng)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)治(zhi)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)世(shi)界(jie)(jie)合(he)作格局,促(cu)进(jin)世(shi)界(jie)(jie)整体(ti)(ti)利(li)(li)益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)最大(da)化(hua)(hua),促(cu)进(jin)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)个体(ti)(ti)利(li)(li)益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)最大(da)化(hua)(hua)。通(tong)过(guo)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)生(sheng),明白相互之(zhi)间存(cun)在着(zhe)利(li)(li)益(yi)关联(lian),彼此离不开对(dui)(dui)方(fang)(fang);通(tong)过(guo)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)治(zhi),为(wei)(wei)实(shi)现共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)利(li)(li)益(yi)而付诸共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)动,大(da)家需要(yao)(yao)合(he)作而不是(shi)(shi)对(dui)(dui)抗(kang);通(tong)过(guo)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang),共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)分(fen)享(xiang)发(fa)展成果、发(fa)展机会和(he)(he)发(fa)展资(zi)源,保证各(ge)(ge)方(fang)(fang)均能(neng)(neng)获(huo)得利(li)(li)益(yi)和(he)(he)实(shi)惠(hui)。

  在(zai)经(jing)济(ji)全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)化深入发展(zhan)(zhan)的今天(tian),弱(ruo)肉强食、赢者通吃(chi)是一条越走越窄的死胡同,包容普惠、互(hu)利(li)共(gong)赢才是越走越宽的人间正道(dao)。世(shi)(shi)界(jie)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)(guo)应(ying)该做到共(gong)生共(gong)存(cun)、互(hu)助互(hu)利(li),推(tui)动经(jing)济(ji)全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)化朝着更加开放(fang)、包容、普惠、平衡、共(gong)赢的方向发展(zhan)(zhan),让各(ge)(ge)国(guo)(guo)人民共(gong)享经(jing)济(ji)全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)化和世(shi)(shi)界(jie)经(jing)济(ji)增长成果。中国(guo)(guo)在(zai)诸多(duo)国(guo)(guo)际领域(yu)的主张和行为,秉(bing)承共(gong)生、共(gong)治(zhi)、共(gong)享的原则推(tui)动全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)性事务的协调与解(jie)决。中国(guo)(guo)提出国(guo)(guo)家(jia)不论大(da)小、强弱(ruo)、贫富(fu),都应(ying)该平等(deng)(deng)相待。世(shi)(shi)界(jie)合(he)作应(ying)该以平等(deng)(deng)为基础,确(que)保(bao)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)(guo)在(zai)合(he)作中权(quan)利(li)平等(deng)(deng)、机会平等(deng)(deng)、规则平等(deng)(deng)。规则只有(you)世(shi)(shi)界(jie)各(ge)(ge)国(guo)(guo)共(gong)商,才能最(zui)大(da)限度(du)地保(bao)障最(zui)优;合(he)作方案的制定和落实,只有(you)各(ge)(ge)个国(guo)(guo)家(jia)共(gong)建,才能最(zui)大(da)限度(du)地保(bao)障公平。

  构建利益、命运、责任与共的人类命运共同体

  构(gou)建(jian)利益、命(ming)运、责任与(yu)(yu)共(gong)的(de)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类命(ming)运共(gong)同(tong)体(ti)(ti),更是为了(le)全(quan)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类的(de)和(he)(he)平(ping)(ping)(ping)与(yu)(yu)繁荣,推动各国(guo)各民族(zu)一(yi)(yi)道建(jian)设世(shi)界(jie)大家庭。2015年9月(yue),习(xi)近平(ping)(ping)(ping)总(zong)(zong)(zong)书记(ji)(ji)在纽约联(lian)合国(guo)总(zong)(zong)(zong)部出席第七十届(jie)联(lian)合国(guo)大会(hui)一(yi)(yi)般性辩论(lun)时发表重要讲话指出:“当今世(shi)界(jie),各国(guo)相互依存、休戚(qi)与(yu)(yu)共(gong)。我们要继承和(he)(he)弘(hong)扬联(lian)合国(guo)宪章的(de)宗旨和(he)(he)原则(ze),构(gou)建(jian)以合作共(gong)赢(ying)为核心的(de)新型(xing)国(guo)际关系,打造人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类命(ming)运共(gong)同(tong)体(ti)(ti)。”今年1月(yue),在世(shi)界(jie)经(jing)济论(lun)坛“达沃斯议(yi)(yi)程(cheng)”对话会(hui)上,习(xi)近平(ping)(ping)(ping)总(zong)(zong)(zong)书记(ji)(ji)进一(yi)(yi)步指出:“人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类只(zhi)有一(yi)(yi)个地球,人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类也只(zhi)有一(yi)(yi)个共(gong)同(tong)的(de)未来”。“我们要秉(bing)持人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类命(ming)运共(gong)同(tong)体(ti)(ti)理(li)(li)念,坚守和(he)(he)平(ping)(ping)(ping)、发展、公平(ping)(ping)(ping)、正义、民主、自由的(de)全(quan)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类共(gong)同(tong)价值,摆脱意识(shi)形(xing)态偏见(jian),最大程(cheng)度增强(qiang)合作机(ji)制、理(li)(li)念、政策(ce)的(de)开放性和(he)(he)包容性,共(gong)同(tong)维护世(shi)界(jie)和(he)(he)平(ping)(ping)(ping)稳(wen)定。”习(xi)近平(ping)(ping)(ping)总(zong)(zong)(zong)书记(ji)(ji)提出的(de)构(gou)建(jian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)类命(ming)运共(gong)同(tong)体(ti)(ti)重大理(li)(li)念,为全(quan)球治理(li)(li)体(ti)(ti)系的(de)未来指明了(le)根本性思路和(he)(he)方向。如今,这一(yi)(yi)理(li)(li)念已写入联(lian)合国(guo)决议(yi)(yi),得到了(le)广大会(hui)员国(guo)的(de)普遍认同(tong)。

  构建(jian)人(ren)(ren)类命运共同(tong)体是从全(quan)人(ren)(ren)类的(de)和(he)平与繁(fan)荣出发,呼吁世界各(ge)国各(ge)民(min)族(zu)(zu)一(yi)道建(jian)设合作共赢、和(he)谐(xie)共存的(de)世界大(da)家(jia)(jia)庭。人(ren)(ren)类只有(you)一(yi)个地球(qiu),各(ge)国共处(chu)一(yi)个世界。各(ge)个国家(jia)(jia)各(ge)个民(min)族(zu)(zu)的(de)利益是“捆(kun)绑”在一(yi)起(qi)(qi)的(de),命运也(ye)是“捆(kun)绑”在一(yi)起(qi)(qi)的(de),一(yi)荣俱荣、一(yi)损俱损。与此同(tong)时,各(ge)个国家(jia)(jia)各(ge)个民(min)族(zu)(zu)也(ye)要(yao)共同(tong)承担人(ren)(ren)类共同(tong)的(de)责任,全(quan)球(qiu)治理(li)体系当前(qian)的(de)困(kun)境和(he)挑战,需要(yao)大(da)家(jia)(jia)一(yi)起(qi)(qi)去(qu)应对。没有(you)共同(tong)的(de)责任,共同(tong)的(de)利益、共同(tong)的(de)命运也(ye)就(jiu)失(shi)去(qu)了保(bao)障。

  构(gou)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)人(ren)类命运共(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)(tong)体(ti)(ti),关键(jian)在行(xing)动(dong)(dong)。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)倡(chang)导人(ren)类命运共(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)(tong)体(ti)(ti),并非只停留在理念层(ceng)面,还采取措施和(he)(he)行(xing)动(dong)(dong)去务实(shi)地推动(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)构(gou)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。积极参与(yu)并主(zhu)(zhu)动(dong)(dong)引(yin)领(ling)多项国(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)规则的(de)(de)完善(shan)或制定,为全球治(zhi)理与(yu)合(he)作提供新的(de)(de)平台(tai),对全球治(zhi)理与(yu)合(he)作多个领(ling)域的(de)(de)机制构(gou)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)提出科学(xue)主(zhu)(zhu)张。通(tong)过规则、平台(tai)和(he)(he)主(zhu)(zhu)张,让人(ren)类命运共(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)(tong)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)构(gou)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)落在实(shi)际(ji)行(xing)动(dong)(dong)上。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)发(fa)挥(hui)自身(shen)成功经验来推进国(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)规则的(de)(de)制定和(he)(he)完善(shan),比如全球互联网治(zhi)理规则制定处(chu)于初级阶段,要达成全球协定仍需凝聚多方共(gong)(gong)识,而中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)互联网发(fa)展(zhan)快,积累了一定经验,积极承担(dan)国(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)责(ze)任,与(yu)其他(ta)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家开展(zhan)合(he)作,致力(li)于建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)立(li)多边、民主(zhu)(zhu)、透(tou)明的(de)(de)全球互联网治(zhi)理体(ti)(ti)系。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)倡(chang)议的(de)(de)“一带一路”,已成为实(shi)现共(gong)(gong)赢共(gong)(gong)享(xiang)发(fa)展(zhan)、构(gou)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)人(ren)类命运共(gong)(gong)同(tong)(tong)(tong)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要平台(tai)。

  (作(zuo)者:中共海(hai)南省委政策研究室副(fu)主任)

  责任(ren)编(bian)辑:刘玉成(cheng)

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